A* Search Algorithm

2018/11/24

Tags: algorithm A*

前段时间我们设想了一个需求,想帮助用户规划一下从 A -> B 的航线。对于路径规划从来没弄过,研究了一下,基本都在提这个 A 星寻路算法

    先贴几个文章:
  1. 简单的讲解的文章例如 https://www.jianshu.com/p/65282bd32391
  2. 这个详细一点的 https://blog.csdn.net/DinnerHowe/article/details/79380317

我写了一个简单的程序,这个程序没有做过任何的优化,只能说是解释了这个算法的逻辑而已,在终端里面可以可视化的把计算过程显示出来。效果可以看这里

#!/usr/bin/python
import sys
import random


RED = '\033[31m'
GREEN = '\033[32m'
GRAY = '\033[35m'
NC = '\033[0m'

class Point(object):
    x = 0
    y = 0
    close = False
    open = False
    start = False
    end = False
    wall = False
    H = 99
    G = 99
    parent = None

    def __init__(self, **kwargs):
        if 'x' in kwargs:
            self.x = kwargs['x']

        if 'y' in kwargs:
            self.y = kwargs['y']

        self.key = '{}-{}'.format(self.x, self.y)

    def __str__(self):
        return '{},H{:2},G{:2},F{:2},P{:3}'.format(
                self.key,
                self.H if self.H != 99 else '',
                self.G if self.G != 99 else '',
                self.G + self.H if self.G != 99 else '',
                self.parent.key if self.parent else '')

    def  __lt__(self, other):
        return self.x < other.x if self.y == other.y else self.y < other.y


def get_area(width, height):
    area = {}
    for i in range(width):
        for j in range(height):
            point = Point(x=i, y=j)

            area[point.key] = point
    return area

def show_result(area_hash):
    prev_y = -1

    for point in sorted(area_hash.values()):
        if ( prev_y != point.y ):
            if (prev_y != -1):
                print('')
            prev_y = point.y

        if point.start:
            format = RED + 'S' + NC
        elif point.end:
            format = RED + 'E' + NC
        elif point.wall:
            format = GRAY + 'W' + NC
        elif point.close:
            format = GREEN + '0' + NC
        else:
            format = ' '
        print((format + '({})  ').format(point), end='')
    print('')

def set_preset(area, start, end, wall):
    area[start].start = True
    area[end].end = True
    for key in wall:
        area[key].wall = True
    return area

def is_valid_point(point, width, height):
    if point.wall or point.close:
        return False

    if point.x < 0 or point.x > width:
        return False

    if point.y < 0 or point.y > height:
        return False

    return True

def get_around(area, point, width, height):
    n = '{}-{}'.format(point.x, point.y - 1)
    s = '{}-{}'.format(point.x, point.y + 1)
    l = '{}-{}'.format(point.x - 1, point.y)
    r = '{}-{}'.format(point.x + 1, point.y)

    res = {}
    for key in [n, s, l, r]:
        if key in area and is_valid_point(area[key], width, height):
            area[key].parent = point
            area[key].G = area[key].G if area[key].G != 99 else (point.G if point.G != 99 else 0) + 1
            res[key] = area[key]

    return res

def get_H(point, end_point):
    return abs(point.x - end_point.x) + abs(point.y - end_point.y)

step = 0
opened = {}

def go(area, start, end, width, height):
    global step, opened
    start_point = area[start]
    end_point= area[end]
    start_point.close = True

    if start_point.key in opened:
        del opened[start_point.key]

    points = get_around(area, start_point, width, height)
    opened.update(points)

    rnd = random.choice(list(opened))
    next_point = area[rnd]
    for key, point in opened.items():
        point.H = get_H(point, end_point)

        if point.H + point.G <= next_point.H + next_point.G:
            next_point = point

    print('step {}: {}'.format(step, next_point))
    step += 1
    if step >= 3:
        pass

    if next_point and next_point.key != end:
        go(area, next_point.key, end, width, height)

def get_result(area, start, end):
    print('{}{}{} <- '.format(RED, area[end].key, NC), end='')
    parent = area[end].parent
    if(parent.key != start):
        get_result(area, start, parent.key)
    else:
        print('{}{}{}'.format(RED, area[start].key, NC), end='')

def main():
    width = 10
    height = 10
    start = '1-3'
    end = '8-4'
    wall = ['2-2', '3-2', '3-3', '3-4', '3-5', '3-6', '5-4', '2-6', '1-6']

    area = get_area(width, height)
    area = set_preset(area, start, end, wall)
    go(area, start, end, width,  height)
    show_result(area)
    get_result(area, start, end)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

这个算法通过调整 G 和 H 的计算逻辑,可以平衡寻路速度和路径是否最短。另外,对于 open 列表的维护,也可以使用一些适合自己的数据结构来得到比较快速的查找。上面第二个帖子里面比较详细的列了一些改进算法的思路。

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